At the beginning of the week we covered creating a directory, a file, editing that file, creating a local repo, staging the new file and committing it to a local repo, all in Git command line. If you need to brush up or have not read VersionControl & Git Part I, I recommend you check it out first.
In this part of this series we are going to learn how to push the contents of our local repo to a public repo on Github, create alternate branches to work on and merge those branches to the master branch.
I’m going to assume that you have already created a Github account and are ready to push a commit from your local repo to there.
Go ahead and login into your Github account and click on “New repository.”
After that you will need to name your repo, select “public” -unless you would like to pay for an account to make your repos private- and give it a brief description. Most of the time you will want to initiate it with a README file but because we already have one, we will omit the option here.
You will need to generate an SSH key (Secure SHell) to remote login to your Github repo with the command line. This will enable you to login to your Github account every time you open terminal without having to enter a Github password for each repo you have. For more on SSH visit here. To learn how to generate an SSH key and add it to your Github account visit here.
Now that you have your SSH key set up we are going to open terminal and cd (change directory) to your local repo.
You will notice on your Github repo some commands to push your local repo to Github and that’s next.
Simply copy and paste the first line and press enter.
Next, copy and paste the second line and press enter again.
git push -u origin master
You can now refresh the repo page on Github and view your README file.
Let’s assume you are still in the a_new_project directory in your terminal. We will make a change to our file and push it to our Github repository.
First we’ll edit the README file in nano in the terminal.
Add some additional text, type control x, type “y” to save your changes and then press enter to exit nano.
Now let’s check the status of our file.
We will see that the file is highlighted in red and accompanied with “modified.”
This means it is ready to be queued to our local repo.
git add -A
Using the add -A command will add all files that you edited, all at once to the queueing area; a shortcut. You can still add files individually as you did in the first tutorial, if you prefer.
Check the status again to make sure that the file is queued to be committed.
The file will now be highlighted in green.
It is now ready to be committed to your local repo.
git commit -m "Added some additional text to README."
Now push it to your Github repo.
Go ahead and check your repo at Github to see that the changes were made along with your comments.
On to using multiple branches.
The master branch in a repo is the first branch, it is also known as the trunk. If you do not want to work in the master branch because you are working on a new feature and will be making several commits before it is ready, you will need to create a new “feature” or “development” branch.
Let’s create a new_feature branch. (If your terminal is filled up with commands you can type the command clear to remove your command history from terminal.)
git branch new_feature
To get into the new_feature branch you will need to use git checkout.
git checkout new_feature
This command will prompt the terminal to reply with “Switched to branch ‘new_feature’.”
Now we will do some more editing to our README file.
Add some text, type control x, type “y” to save your changes and press enter to exit nano.
Now let’s queue it, commit it and push it to Github.
git add -A git commit -m "Added some text to the README file in the new_feature branch." git push
Ahhh, wait a second, you get an error after git push.
“fatal: The current branch new_feature has no upstream branch.”
You need to setup the new_feature branch on Github to receive the contents of it from your local repo. Lucky for us, terminal tells us exactly what to type to accomplish this.
git push --set-upstream origin new_feature
Once you have set the new_feature branch upstream, push your commit again.
Now go back to your Github repo and select “branch:” to see your new_feature branch and it’s contents.
Now, let’s say you are finally ready to merge the contents of your new_feature branch to your master branch. You will need to be in the branch you want to merge to in order to merge the alternate branch with it. For us, we want to merge our new_feature commit to our master branch, thus, we will need to get back into our master branch in our local repository.
If we use
terminal will let us know that we are still in the new_feature branch.
“On branch ‘new_feature'”
So let’s get back into our master branch or trunk with the command git checkout.
git checkout master
Terminal will tell us that we have switched to the master branch.
It’s time to merge our changes to the trunk or master branch.
git merge new_feature
After the merge occurs it is time to queue it, commit it and push it to Github.
git add -A git commit -m "Merged new_feature onto trunk." git push
That’s it! Congrats! You can now use version control with Git for your entire career. No more cowboy coding. Time for a raise, right?
There is much more to learn about Git but this is enough to be able to have version control implemented on any project. Here are some useful links for continuing your Git/version control education.
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